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The most common materials used in the manufacture of machinery and its choice are steel and cast iron, followed by non-ferrous metal alloys.


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The most common materials used in the manufacture of machinery and its choice are steel and cast iron, followed by non-ferrous metal alloys. Non-metallic materials such as plastics, rubber, etc., also have unique use value in mechanical manufacturing.
metallic material
1. Cast iron
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Both cast iron and steel are iron-carbon alloys, and the difference is mainly due to the difference in carbon content. An iron-carbon alloy containing less than 2% carbon is called steel, and a carbon content of more than 2% is called cast iron. Cast iron has suitable fusibility and good liquid flow, so it can be cast into complex shapes. In addition, its shock absorption, wear resistance, and machinability (referred to as gray cast iron) are both good and low cost, so it is widely used in mechanical manufacturing. Commonly used cast irons are: gray cast iron, ductile iron, malleable cast iron, alloy cast iron and the like. Among them, gray cast iron and nodular cast iron are brittle materials and cannot be rolled and forged. Among the above cast irons, gray cast iron is the most widely used, and ductile iron is the second.
2, steel
Compared with cast iron, steel has high strength, toughness and plasticity, and can be heat treated to improve its mechanical properties and processability. The blanks of steel parts can be obtained by forging, stamping, welding or casting, so they are widely used. Steel can be divided into structural steel, tool steel and special steel according to the application. Structural steel is used to manufacture various mechanical parts and structural components; tool steel is mainly used to manufacture various cutting tools, molds and measuring tools; special steels (such as stainless steel, heat-resistant steel, acid-resistant steel, etc.) are used in special environments. Working parts. According to the chemical composition, steel can be divided into carbon steel and alloy steel. The nature of carbon steel depends mainly on the carbon content. The higher the carbon content, the higher the strength of the steel, but the lower the plasticity. In order to improve the properties of steel, steels with some alloying elements added specifically are called alloy steels. 1) Carbon structural steel The carbon content of such steels generally does not exceed 0.7%. Low carbon steel with carbon content less than 0.25%, its strength limit and yield limit are low, plasticity is high, and it has good weldability. It is suitable for stamping and welding. It is commonly used to make screws, nuts, washers, shafts, Valve guides and welded components. The carbon content is at 0. L% to 0.2% of low carbon steel is also used to make carburized parts such as gears, piston pins, sprockets, etc. Through carburizing and quenching, the surface of the part can be hard and wear-resistant, and the core is tough and impact resistant. Low carbon gold-containing steel can be used if higher strength and impact resistance are required. Medium carbon steel with carbon content of 0.3% to 0.5%, its comprehensive mechanical properties are better, it has higher strength, and has certain plasticity and toughness. It is often used as a bolt with high force. Parts such as nuts, keys, gears, and shafts. High carbon steel with a carbon content of 0.55% to 0.7% has high strength and elasticity and is used to make ordinary leaf springs, coil springs or wire ropes.For more information, please click XingHui China Mechanical Parts