UniqueThis 's Entries

3 blogs
  • 22 Aug 2021
    Perhaps you have felt disappointed when you start an especially vigorous workout routine only to see the scale go above the weight you started with. Is there a biological reason behind why exercise makes me gain weight? There are many aspects to the answer. Exercise does not make you fat. Weight gain after working out is most likely a combination of several factors, but you shouldn't give up. Professor Corinne Caillaud, an Australian professor of physical activity and digital health, says people typically don't realize the health benefits of exercise even when they gain weight. In regard to weight management, exercise is important, but diet also plays a role, said Caillaud. A person who notices their weight increasing should review the quantity and quality of the food they're eating, she said. What and how much they eat can explain their post-exercise weight gain.  "Unfortunately, a lot of people think that they can eat more because they've exercised," Caillaud said. Although eating junk food occasionally may not be harmful, exercising will likely not counteract the effects of increasing the frequency with which you consume it.  The weight gain may be due to a few different biological factors, even if your diet hasn't changed. It is possible to overstrain your muscles if you aren't accustomed to good workouts and then go all out. According to University Hospitals in Cleveland, Ohio, when this happens, your muscles are damaged by microtears, but these are not cause for concern, since your body helps repair the damage by sending nutrition to the muscles. As a result, your muscles ache the next day, but eventually your muscles grow.  
    262 Posted by UniqueThis
  • Perhaps you have felt disappointed when you start an especially vigorous workout routine only to see the scale go above the weight you started with. Is there a biological reason behind why exercise makes me gain weight? There are many aspects to the answer. Exercise does not make you fat. Weight gain after working out is most likely a combination of several factors, but you shouldn't give up. Professor Corinne Caillaud, an Australian professor of physical activity and digital health, says people typically don't realize the health benefits of exercise even when they gain weight. In regard to weight management, exercise is important, but diet also plays a role, said Caillaud. A person who notices their weight increasing should review the quantity and quality of the food they're eating, she said. What and how much they eat can explain their post-exercise weight gain.  "Unfortunately, a lot of people think that they can eat more because they've exercised," Caillaud said. Although eating junk food occasionally may not be harmful, exercising will likely not counteract the effects of increasing the frequency with which you consume it.  The weight gain may be due to a few different biological factors, even if your diet hasn't changed. It is possible to overstrain your muscles if you aren't accustomed to good workouts and then go all out. According to University Hospitals in Cleveland, Ohio, when this happens, your muscles are damaged by microtears, but these are not cause for concern, since your body helps repair the damage by sending nutrition to the muscles. As a result, your muscles ache the next day, but eventually your muscles grow.  
    Aug 22, 2021 262
  • 15 Aug 2021
    False and misleading claims about Covid-19 vaccines, fertility and miscarriages are still circulating online, despite not being supported by evidence. Doctors are extremely cautious about what they recommend during pregnancy, so the original advice was to avoid the jab. But now, so much safety data has become available that this advice has changed and the vaccine is now actively encouraged (as getting Covid itself can put a pregnancy at risk) We have looked at some of the more persistent claims - and why they are wrong. This theory comes from a misreading of a study submitted to the Japanese regulator. The study involved giving rats a much higher dose of vaccine than that given to humans (1,333 times higher). Only 0.1% of the total dose ended up in the animals' ovaries, 48 hours after injection. Far more - 53% after one hour and 25% after 48 hours - was found at the injection site (in humans, usually the arm). The next most common place was the liver (16% after 48 hours), which helps get rid of waste products from the blood. The vaccine is delivered using a bubble of fat containing the virus's genetic material, which kick-starts the body's immune system. And those promoting this claim cherry-picked a figure which actually referred to the concentration of fat found in the ovaries. Fat levels in the ovaries did increase in the 48 hours after the jab, as the vaccine contents moved from the injection site around the body. But, crucially, there was no evidence it still contained the virus's genetic material. We don't know what happened after 48 hours as that was the limit of the study. Some posts have highlighted miscarriages reported to vaccine-monitoring schemes, including the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) Yellow Card scheme in the UK and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) in the US. Anyone can report symptoms or health conditions they experience after being vaccinated. Not everyone will choose to report, so this is a self-selecting database. There were indeed miscarriages reported in these databases - they are unfortunately common events - but this does not mean the jab caused them. A study has found data showing the miscarriage rate among vaccinated people was in line with the rate expected in the general population - 12.5%. Dr Victoria Male, a reproductive immunologist at Imperial College London, says these reporting systems are very good for spotting side-effects from the vaccine that are normally rare in the general population - that's how a specific type of blood clot was linked in some rare cases to the AstraZeneca vaccine. If you suddenly start seeing unusual symptoms in vaccinated people, it raises a red flag. They are not so good at monitoring side-effects that are common in the population - such as changes to periods, miscarriages and heart problems. Seeing them in the data doesn't necessarily raise these red flags because you'd expect to see them anyway, vaccine or not. It's only if we start getting many more miscarriages than are seen in unvaccinated people that this data would prompt an investigation - and that's not been the case so far. Some people have also shared graphs showing a big rise in the overall number of people reporting their experiences to these schemes compared with previous years, for other vaccines and drugs. This has been used to imply the Covid vaccine is less safe. But the rise can't tell us that, it can only tell us that lots of people are reporting - possibly because an unprecedented proportion of the population is being vaccinated and it is a much talked-about subject. A widely shared petition from Michael Yeadon, a scientific researcher who has made other misleading statements about Covid, claimed the coronavirus's spike protein contained within the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines was similar to a protein called syncytin-1, involved in forming the placenta. He speculated that this might cause antibodies against the virus to attack a developing pregnancy, too. Some experts believe this was the origin of the whole belief that Covid vaccines might harm fertility. In fact syncytin-1 and the coronavirus's spike protein are just about as similar as any two random proteins so there is no real reason to believe the body might confuse them. But now evidence has been gathered to help disprove his theory. US fertility doctor Randy Morris, who wanted to respond directly to the concerns he'd heard, began monitoring his patients who were undergoing IVF treatment to see whether vaccination made any difference to their chances of a successful pregnancy. Out of 143 people in Dr Morris's study, vaccinated, unvaccinated and previously infected women were about equally likely to have a successful embryo implantation and for the pregnancy to continue to term. The women were similar in most other respects. The study is small, but it adds to a large volume of other evidence - and were the claim true, you would expect that to show up even in a study of this size. Dr Morris pointed out that people spreading these fears had not explained why they believed antibodies produced in response to the vaccine could harm fertility but the same antibodies from a natural infection would not. The problem is, while scientists are rushing to provide evidence to reassure people, by the time they can report their findings people online have moved on to the next thing. As Dr Morris explained: "The hallmark of a conspiracy theory is as soon as it's disproven, you move the goalpost." By Rachel SchraerBBC News
    159 Posted by UniqueThis
  • False and misleading claims about Covid-19 vaccines, fertility and miscarriages are still circulating online, despite not being supported by evidence. Doctors are extremely cautious about what they recommend during pregnancy, so the original advice was to avoid the jab. But now, so much safety data has become available that this advice has changed and the vaccine is now actively encouraged (as getting Covid itself can put a pregnancy at risk) We have looked at some of the more persistent claims - and why they are wrong. This theory comes from a misreading of a study submitted to the Japanese regulator. The study involved giving rats a much higher dose of vaccine than that given to humans (1,333 times higher). Only 0.1% of the total dose ended up in the animals' ovaries, 48 hours after injection. Far more - 53% after one hour and 25% after 48 hours - was found at the injection site (in humans, usually the arm). The next most common place was the liver (16% after 48 hours), which helps get rid of waste products from the blood. The vaccine is delivered using a bubble of fat containing the virus's genetic material, which kick-starts the body's immune system. And those promoting this claim cherry-picked a figure which actually referred to the concentration of fat found in the ovaries. Fat levels in the ovaries did increase in the 48 hours after the jab, as the vaccine contents moved from the injection site around the body. But, crucially, there was no evidence it still contained the virus's genetic material. We don't know what happened after 48 hours as that was the limit of the study. Some posts have highlighted miscarriages reported to vaccine-monitoring schemes, including the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) Yellow Card scheme in the UK and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) in the US. Anyone can report symptoms or health conditions they experience after being vaccinated. Not everyone will choose to report, so this is a self-selecting database. There were indeed miscarriages reported in these databases - they are unfortunately common events - but this does not mean the jab caused them. A study has found data showing the miscarriage rate among vaccinated people was in line with the rate expected in the general population - 12.5%. Dr Victoria Male, a reproductive immunologist at Imperial College London, says these reporting systems are very good for spotting side-effects from the vaccine that are normally rare in the general population - that's how a specific type of blood clot was linked in some rare cases to the AstraZeneca vaccine. If you suddenly start seeing unusual symptoms in vaccinated people, it raises a red flag. They are not so good at monitoring side-effects that are common in the population - such as changes to periods, miscarriages and heart problems. Seeing them in the data doesn't necessarily raise these red flags because you'd expect to see them anyway, vaccine or not. It's only if we start getting many more miscarriages than are seen in unvaccinated people that this data would prompt an investigation - and that's not been the case so far. Some people have also shared graphs showing a big rise in the overall number of people reporting their experiences to these schemes compared with previous years, for other vaccines and drugs. This has been used to imply the Covid vaccine is less safe. But the rise can't tell us that, it can only tell us that lots of people are reporting - possibly because an unprecedented proportion of the population is being vaccinated and it is a much talked-about subject. A widely shared petition from Michael Yeadon, a scientific researcher who has made other misleading statements about Covid, claimed the coronavirus's spike protein contained within the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines was similar to a protein called syncytin-1, involved in forming the placenta. He speculated that this might cause antibodies against the virus to attack a developing pregnancy, too. Some experts believe this was the origin of the whole belief that Covid vaccines might harm fertility. In fact syncytin-1 and the coronavirus's spike protein are just about as similar as any two random proteins so there is no real reason to believe the body might confuse them. But now evidence has been gathered to help disprove his theory. US fertility doctor Randy Morris, who wanted to respond directly to the concerns he'd heard, began monitoring his patients who were undergoing IVF treatment to see whether vaccination made any difference to their chances of a successful pregnancy. Out of 143 people in Dr Morris's study, vaccinated, unvaccinated and previously infected women were about equally likely to have a successful embryo implantation and for the pregnancy to continue to term. The women were similar in most other respects. The study is small, but it adds to a large volume of other evidence - and were the claim true, you would expect that to show up even in a study of this size. Dr Morris pointed out that people spreading these fears had not explained why they believed antibodies produced in response to the vaccine could harm fertility but the same antibodies from a natural infection would not. The problem is, while scientists are rushing to provide evidence to reassure people, by the time they can report their findings people online have moved on to the next thing. As Dr Morris explained: "The hallmark of a conspiracy theory is as soon as it's disproven, you move the goalpost." By Rachel SchraerBBC News
    Aug 15, 2021 159
  • 15 Aug 2021
    United States regulators on Thursday said transplant recipients and others with severely weakened immune systems can get an extra dose of the Pfizer or Moderna COVID-19 vaccines to better protect them as the Delta variant continues to surge. The announcement by the food and drug administration applies to several million Americans who are especially vulnerable because of organ transplants, certain cancers or other disorders. Several other countries, including France and Israel, have similar recommendations. It's harder for vaccines to rev up an immune system suppressed by certain medications and diseases, so those patients don't always get the same protection as otherwise healthy people — and small studies suggest for at least some, an extra dose may be the solution. "Today's action allows doctors to boost immunity in certain immunocompromised individuals who need extra protection from COVID-19," Dr. Janet Woodcock, the FDA's acting commissioner, said in a statement. The FDA determined that transplant recipients and others with a similar level of compromised immunity can receive a third dose of the vaccines from Pfizer and Moderna at least 28 days after getting their second shot. The FDA made no mention of immune-compromised patients who received the single-dose Johnson & Johnson vaccine. The announcement comes as the extra-contagious Delta version of the coronavirus surges through much of the country, pushing new cases, hospitalizations and deaths to heights not seen since last winter. Importantly, the FDA's decision only applies to this high-risk group, estimated to be no more than 3% of U.S. adults. It's not an opening for booster doses for the general population. Instead, health authorities consider the extra dose part of the initial prescription for the immune-compromised. For example, France since April has encouraged that such patients get a third dose four weeks after their regular second shot. Israel and Germany also recently began recommending a third dose of two-dose vaccines. Separately, U.S. health officials are continuing to closely monitor if and when average people's immunity wanes enough to require boosters for everyone — but for now, the vaccines continue to offer robust protection for the general population. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is expected to formally recommend the extra shots for certain immune-compromised groups after a meeting Friday of its outside advisers. Transplant recipients and others with suppressed immune systems know they're at more risk than the average American and some have been seeking out extra doses on their own, even if it means lying about their vaccination status. The change means now the high-risk groups can more easily get another shot — but experts caution it's not yet clear exactly who should. "This is all going to be very personalized," cautioned Dr. Dorry Segev, a transplant surgeon at Johns Hopkins University who is running a major National Institutes of Health study of extra shots for organ recipients. For some people, a third dose "increases their immune response. Yet for some people it does not seem to. We don't quite know who's who yet." One recent study of more than 650 transplant recipients found just over half harbored virus-fighting antibodies after two doses of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccines — although generally less than in otherwise healthy vaccinated people. Another study of people with rheumatoid arthritis and similar autoimmune diseases found only those who use particular medications have very poor vaccine responses. There's little data on how well a third dose works, and if it causes any safety problems such as an increased risk of organ rejection. Wednesday, Canadian researchers reported that transplant recipients were more likely to have high levels of antibodies if they got a third dose than those given a dummy shot for comparison. Other small studies have similarly found that some transplant recipients respond to a third dose while others still lack enough protection.
    317 Posted by UniqueThis
  • United States regulators on Thursday said transplant recipients and others with severely weakened immune systems can get an extra dose of the Pfizer or Moderna COVID-19 vaccines to better protect them as the Delta variant continues to surge. The announcement by the food and drug administration applies to several million Americans who are especially vulnerable because of organ transplants, certain cancers or other disorders. Several other countries, including France and Israel, have similar recommendations. It's harder for vaccines to rev up an immune system suppressed by certain medications and diseases, so those patients don't always get the same protection as otherwise healthy people — and small studies suggest for at least some, an extra dose may be the solution. "Today's action allows doctors to boost immunity in certain immunocompromised individuals who need extra protection from COVID-19," Dr. Janet Woodcock, the FDA's acting commissioner, said in a statement. The FDA determined that transplant recipients and others with a similar level of compromised immunity can receive a third dose of the vaccines from Pfizer and Moderna at least 28 days after getting their second shot. The FDA made no mention of immune-compromised patients who received the single-dose Johnson & Johnson vaccine. The announcement comes as the extra-contagious Delta version of the coronavirus surges through much of the country, pushing new cases, hospitalizations and deaths to heights not seen since last winter. Importantly, the FDA's decision only applies to this high-risk group, estimated to be no more than 3% of U.S. adults. It's not an opening for booster doses for the general population. Instead, health authorities consider the extra dose part of the initial prescription for the immune-compromised. For example, France since April has encouraged that such patients get a third dose four weeks after their regular second shot. Israel and Germany also recently began recommending a third dose of two-dose vaccines. Separately, U.S. health officials are continuing to closely monitor if and when average people's immunity wanes enough to require boosters for everyone — but for now, the vaccines continue to offer robust protection for the general population. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is expected to formally recommend the extra shots for certain immune-compromised groups after a meeting Friday of its outside advisers. Transplant recipients and others with suppressed immune systems know they're at more risk than the average American and some have been seeking out extra doses on their own, even if it means lying about their vaccination status. The change means now the high-risk groups can more easily get another shot — but experts caution it's not yet clear exactly who should. "This is all going to be very personalized," cautioned Dr. Dorry Segev, a transplant surgeon at Johns Hopkins University who is running a major National Institutes of Health study of extra shots for organ recipients. For some people, a third dose "increases their immune response. Yet for some people it does not seem to. We don't quite know who's who yet." One recent study of more than 650 transplant recipients found just over half harbored virus-fighting antibodies after two doses of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccines — although generally less than in otherwise healthy vaccinated people. Another study of people with rheumatoid arthritis and similar autoimmune diseases found only those who use particular medications have very poor vaccine responses. There's little data on how well a third dose works, and if it causes any safety problems such as an increased risk of organ rejection. Wednesday, Canadian researchers reported that transplant recipients were more likely to have high levels of antibodies if they got a third dose than those given a dummy shot for comparison. Other small studies have similarly found that some transplant recipients respond to a third dose while others still lack enough protection.
    Aug 15, 2021 317